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coqffi.1.0.0 In A Nutshell

For each entry of a cmi file (a compiled mli file), coqffi tries to generate an equivalent (from the extraction mechanism perspective) Coq definition. In this article, we walk through how coqffi works.

Note that we do not dive into the vernacular commands coqffi generates. They are of no concern for users of coqffi.

Getting Started


The latest version of coqffi (1.0.0~beta8) is compatible with OCaml 4.08 up to 4.14, and Coq 8.12 up top 8.13. If you want to use coqffi, but have incompatible requirements of your own, feel free to submit an issue .

Installing coqffi

The recommended way to install coqffi is through the Opam Coq Archive , in the released repository. If you haven’t activated this repository yet, you can use the following bash command.

opam repo add coq-released

Then, installing coqffi is as simple as

opam install coq-coqffi

You can also get the source from the upstream git repository . The README provides the necessary pieces of information to build it from source.

Additional Dependencies

One major difference between Coq and OCaml is that the former is pure, while the latter is not. Impurity can be modeled in pure languages, and Coq does not lack of frameworks in this respect. coqffi currently supports two of them: coq-simple-io  and FreeSpec . It is also possible to use it with Interaction Trees , albeit in a less direct manner.

Primitive Types

coqffi supports a set of primitive types, i.e., a set of OCaml types for which it knows an equivalent type in Coq. The list is the following (the Coq types are fully qualified in the table, but not in the generated Coq module as the necessary Import statements are generated too).

OCaml type Coq type
bool Coq.Init.Datatypes.bool
char Coq.Strings.Ascii.ascii
int CoqFFI.Data.Int.i63
'a list Coq.Init.Datatypes.list a
'a Seq.t CoqFFI.Data.Seq.t
'a option Coq.Init.Datatypes.option a
('a, 'e) result Coq.Init.Datatypes.sum
string Coq.Strings.String.string
unit Coq.Init.Datatypes.unit
exn CoqFFI.Exn

The i63 type is introduced by the CoqFFI theory to provide signed primitive integers to Coq users. They are implemented on top of the (unsigned) Coq native integers introduced in Coq 8.13. The i63 type will be deprecated once the support for signed primitive integers  is implementedThis is actually one of the sources of incompatibility of coqffi with most recent versions of Coq. .

When processing the entries of a given interface model, coqffi will check that they only use these types, or types introduced by the interface module itself.

Sometimes, you may encounter a situation where you have two interface modules b.mli and b.mli, such that b.mli uses a type introduced in a.mli. To deal with this scenario, you can use the --witness flag to generate A.v. This will tell coqffi to also generate A.ffi; this file can then be used when generating B.v thanks to the -I option. Furthermore, for B.v to compile the --require option needs to be used to ensure the A Coq library (A.v) is required.

To give a more concrete example, given ~a.mli~

type t

and b.mli

type a = A.t

To generate A.v, we can use the following commands:

ocamlc a.mli
coqffi --witness -o A.v a.cmi

Which would generate the following axiom for t.

Axiom t : Type.

Then, generating B.v can be achieved as follows:

ocamlc b.mli
coqffi -I A.ffi -ftransparent-types -r A -o B.v b.cmi

which results in the following output for v:

Require A.

Definition u : Type := A.t.

Code Generation

coqffi distinguishes five types of entries: types, pure values, impure primitives, asynchronous primitives, exceptions, and modules. We now discuss how each one of them is handled.


By default, coqffi generates axiomatized definitions for each type defined in a .cmi file. This means that type t becomes Axiom t : Type. Polymorphism is supported, i.e., type 'a t becomes Axiom t : forall (a : Type), Type.

It is possible to provide a “model” for a type using the coq_model annotation, for instance, for reasoning purposes. That is, we can specify that a type is equivalent to a list.

type 'a t [@@coq_model "list"]

This generates the following Coq definition.

Definition t : forall (a : Type), Type := list.

It is important to be careful when using the =coq_model= annotation. More precisely, the fact that t is a list in the “Coq universe” shall not be used while the implementation phase, only the verification phase.

Unnamed polymorphic type parameters are also supported. In presence of such parameters, coqffi will find it a name that is not already used. For instance,

type (_, 'a) ast


Axiom ast : forall (b : Type) (a : Type), Type.

Finally, coqffi has got an experimental feature called transparent-types (enabled by using the -ftransparent-types command-line argument). If the type definition is given in the module interface, then coqffi tries to generate an equivalent definition in Coq. For instance,

type 'a llist =
  | LCons of 'a * (unit -> 'a llist)
  | LNil


Inductive llist (a : Type) : Type :=
| LCons (x0 : a) (x1 : unit -> llist a) : llist a
| LNil : llist a.

Mutually recursive types are supported, so

type even = Zero | ESucc of odd
and odd = OSucc of even


Inductive odd : Type :=
| OSucc (x0 : even) : odd
with even : Type :=
| Zero : even
| ESucc (x0 : odd) : even.

Besides, coqffi supports alias types, as suggested in this write-up when we discuss witness files.

The transparent-types feature is experimental, and is currently limited to variant types. It notably does not support records. Besides, it may generate incorrect Coq types, because it does not check whether or not the positivity condition  is satisfied.

Pure values

coqffi decides whether or not a given OCaml value is pure or impure with the following heuristics:

Similarly to types, coqffi generates axioms (or definitions if the coq_model annotation is used) for pure values. Then,

val unpack : string -> (char * string) option [@@pure]


Axiom unpack : string -> option (ascii * string).

Polymorphic values are supported.

val map : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list [@@pure]


Axiom map : forall (a : Type) (b : Type), (a -> b) -> list a -> list b.

Again, unnamed polymorphic typse are supported, so

val ast_to_string : _ ast -> string [@@pure]


Axiom ast_to_string : forall (a : Type), string.

Impure Primitives

coqffi reserves a special treatment for /impure/ OCaml functions. Impurity is usually handled in pure programming languages by means of monads, and coqffi is no exception to the rule.

Given the set of impure primitives declared in an interface module, coqffi will (1) generate a typeclass which gathers these primitives, and (2) generate instances of this typeclass for supported backends.

We illustrate the rest of this section with the following impure primitives.

val echo : string -> unit
val scan : unit -> string

where echo allows writing something the standard output, and scan to read the standard input.

Assuming the processed module interface is named console.mli, the following Coq typeclass is generated.

Class MonadConsole (m : Type -> Type) := { echo : string -> m unit
                                         ; scan : unit -> m string

Using this typeclass and with the additional support of an additional Monad typeclass, we can specify impure computations which interacts with the console. For instance, with the support of ExtLib, one can write.

Definition pipe `{Monad m, MonadConsole m} : m unit :=
  let* msg := scan () in
  echo msg.

There is no canonical way to model impurity in Coq, but over the years several frameworks have been released to tackle this challenge.

coqffi provides three features related to impure primitives.


When this feature is enabled, coqffi generates an instance of the typeclass for the =IO= monad introduced in the coq-simple-io package

Axiom io_echo : string -> IO unit.
Axiom io_scan : unit -> IO string.

Instance IO_MonadConsole : MonadConsole IO := { echo := io_echo
                                              ; scan := io_scan

It is enabled by default, but can be disabled using the -fno-simple-io command-line argument.


When this feature is enabled, coqffi generates an inductive type which describes the set of primitives available, to be used with frameworks like FreeSpec  or Interactions Trees .

Inductive CONSOLE : Type -> Type :=
| Echo : string -> CONSOLE unit
| Scan : unit -> CONSOLE string.

Definition inj_echo `{Inject CONSOLE m} (x0 : string) : m unit :=
  inject (Echo x0).

Definition inj_scan `{Inject CONSOLE m} (x0 : unit) : m string :=
  inject (Scan x0).

Instance Inject_MonadConsole `{Inject CONSOLE m} : MonadConsole m :=
  { echo := inj_echo
  ; scan := inj_scan

Providing an instance of the form forall i, Inject i M is enough for your monad M to be compatible with this featureSee for instance how FreeSpec implements it ). .


When this feature in enabled, coqffi generates a semantics for the inductive type generated by the interface feature.

Axiom unsafe_echo : string -> unit.
Axiom unsafe_scan : uint -> string.

Definition console_unsafe_semantics : semantics CONSOLE :=
  bootstrap (fun a e =>
    local match e in CONSOLE a return a with
          | Echo x0 => unsafe_echo x0
          | Scan x0 => unsafe_scan x0

Asynchronous Primitives

coqffi also reserves a special treatment for asynchronous primitives —i.e., functions which live inside the Lwt monad— when the lwt feature is enabled.

The treatment is very analogous to the one for impure primitives: (1) a typeclass is generated (with the _Async suffix), and (2) an instance for the Lwt monad is generated. Besides, an instance for the “synchronous” primitives is also generated for Lwt. If the interface feature is enabled, an interface datatype is generated, which means you can potentially use Coq to reason about your asynchronous programs (using FreeSpec and alike, although the interleaving of asynchronous programs in not yet supported in FreeSpec).

By default, the type of the Lwt monad is Lwt.t. You can override this setting using the --lwt-alias option. This can be useful when you are using an alias type in place of Lwt.t.


OCaml features an exception mechanism. Developers can define their own exceptions using the exception keyword, whose syntax is similar to the constructors’ definition. For instance,

exception Foo of int * bool

introduces a new exception Foo which takes two parameters of type int and bool. Foo (x, y) constructs of value of type exn.

For each new exception introduced in an OCaml module, coqffi generates (1) a so-called “proxy type,” and (2) conversion functions to and from this type.

Coming back to our example, the “proxy type” generates by coqffi is

Inductive FooExn : Type :=
| MakeFooExn (x0 : i63) (x1 : bool) : FooExn.

Then, coqffi generates conversion functions.

Axiom exn_of_foo : FooExn -> exn.
Axiom foo_of_exn : exn -> option FooExn.

Besides, coqffi also generates an instance for the Exn typeclass provided by the CoqFFI theory:

Instance FooExn_Exn : Exn FooExn :=
  { to_exn := exn_of_foo
  ; of_exn := foo_of_exn

Under the hood, exn is an extensible datatype , and how coqffi supports it will probably be generalized in future releases.

Finally, coqffi has a minimal support for functions which may raise exceptions. Since OCaml type system does not allow to identify such functions, they need to be annotated explicitly, using the =may_raise= annotation. In such a case, coqffi will change the return type of the function to use the =sum= Coq inductive type.

For instance,

val from_option : 'a option -> 'a [@@may_raise] [@@pure]


Axiom from_option : forall (a : Type), option a -> sum a exn.


Lastly, coqffi supports OCaml modules described within mli files, when they are specified as module T : sig ... end. For instance,

module T : sig
  type t

  val to_string : t -> string [@@pure]


Module T.
  Axiom t : Type.

  Axiom to_string : t -> string.
End T.

As of now, the following construction is unfortunately not supported, and will be ignored by coqffi:

module S = sig
  type t

  val to_string : t -> string [@@pure]

module T : S

Moving Forward

coqffi comes with a comprehensive man page. In addition, the interested reader can proceed to the next article of this series, which explains how coqffi can be used to easily implement an echo server in Coq.